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Глагол fly с окончанием ing



Спряжение глагола «to fly» (Английский язык)

Глагол to fly – неправильный глагол в английском языке, в переводе на русский означает: летать, лететь, полететь, пролетать, пилотировать.

Infinitive to fly
Simple past flew
Past participle flown
-s flies
-ing flying

Fly in present simple

Утверждение

Отрицание

He does not fly
She does not fly
It does not fly

They do not fly

Вопрос

Does he fly?
Does she fly?
Does it fly?

Fly in present continuous

Утверждение

He is flying
She is flying
It is flying

They are flying

Отрицание

I am not flying

You are not flying

He is not flying
She is not flying
It is not flying

We are not flying

You are not flying

They are not flying

Вопрос

Is he flying?
Is she flying?
Is it flying?

Are they flying?

Fly in present perfect

Утверждение

He has flown
She has flown
It has flown

They have flown

Отрицание

I have not flown

You have not flown

He has not flown
She has not flown
It has not flown

We have not flown

You have not flown

They have not flown

Вопрос

Has he flown?
Has she flown?
Has it flown?

Have they flown?

Fly in present perfect continuous

Утверждение

I have been flying

You have been flying

He has been flying
She has been flying
It has been flying

We have been flying

You have been flying

They have been flying

Отрицание

I have not been flying

You have not been flying

He has not been flying
She has not been flying
It has not been flying

We have not been flying

You have not been flying

They have not been flying

Вопрос

Have I been flying?

Have you been flying?

Has he been flying?
Has she been flying?
Has it been flying?

Have we been flying?

Have you been flying?

Have they been flying?

Fly in past simple

Утверждение

Отрицание

You did not fly

He did not fly
She did not fly
It did not fly

You did not fly

They did not fly

Вопрос

Did he fly?
Did she fly?
Did it fly?

Fly in past continuous

Утверждение

You were flying

He was flying
She was flying
It was flying

You were flying

They were flying

Отрицание

I was not flying

You were not flying

He was not flying
She was not flying
It was not flying

We were not flying

You were not flying

They were not flying

Вопрос

Were you flying?

Was he flying?
Was she flying?
Was it flying?

Were you flying?

Were they flying?

Fly in past perfect

Утверждение

He had flown
She had flown
It had flown

Отрицание

I had not flown

You had not flown

He had not flown
She had not flown
It had not flown

We had not flown

You had not flown

They had not flown

Вопрос

Had he flown?
Had she flown?
Had it flown?

Fly in past perfect continuous

Утверждение

I had been flying

You had been flying

He had been flying
She had been flying
It had been flying

We had been flying

You had been flying

They had been flying

Отрицание

I had not been flying

You had not been flying

He had not been flying
She had not been flying
It had not been flying

We had not been flying

You had not been flying

They had not been flying

Вопрос

Had I been flying?

Had you been flying?

Had he been flying?
Had she been flying?
Had it been flying?

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Had we been flying?

Had you been flying?

Had they been flying?

Fly in future simple

Утверждение

He will fly
She will fly
It will fly

Отрицание

You will not fly

He will not fly
She will not fly
It will not fly

We will not fly

You will not fly

They will not fly

Вопрос

Will he fly?
Will she fly?
Will it fly?

Fly in future continuous

Утверждение

I will be flying

You will be flying

He will be flying
She will be flying
It will be flying

We will be flying

You will be flying

They will be flying

Отрицание

I will not be flying

You will not be flying

He will not be flying
She will not be flying
It will not be flying

We will not be flying

You will not be flying

They will not be flying

Вопрос

Will I be flying?

Will you be flying?

Will he be flying?
Will she be flying?
Will it be flying?

Will we be flying?

Will you be flying?

Will they be flying?

Fly in future perfect

Утверждение

I will have flown

You will have flown

He will have flown
She will have flown
It will have flown

We will have flown

You will have flown

They will have flown

Отрицание

I will not have flown

You will not have flown

He will not have flown
She will not have flown
It will not have flown

We will not have flown

You will not have flown

They will not have flown

Вопрос

Will I have flown?

Will you have flown?

Will he have flown?
Will she have flown?
Will it have flown?

Will we have flown?

Will you have flown?

Will they have flown?

Fly in future perfect continuous

Утверждение

I will have been flying

You will have been flying

He will have been flying
She will have been flying
It will have been flying

We will have been flying

You will have been flying

They will have been flying

Отрицание

I will not have been flying

You will not have been flying

He will not have been flying
She will not have been flying
It will not have been flying

We will not have been flying

You will not have been flying

They will not have been flying

Вопрос

Will I have been flying?

Will you have been flying?

Will he have been flying?
Will she have been flying?
Will it have been flying?

Will we have been flying?

Will you have been flying?

Will they have been flying?

Fly in conditional present

Утверждение

He would fly
She would fly
It would fly

Отрицание

I would not fly

You would not fly

He would not fly
She would not fly
It would not fly

We would not fly

You would not fly

They would not fly

Вопрос

Would he fly?
Would she fly?
Would it fly?

Fly in conditional present progressive

Утверждение

I would be flying

You would be flying

He would be flying
She would be flying
It would be flying

We would be flying

You would be flying

They would be flying

Отрицание

I would not be flying

You would not be flying

He would not be flying
She would not be flying
It would not be flying

We would not be flying

You would not be flying

They would not be flying

Вопрос

Would I be flying?

Would you be flying?

Would he be flying?
Would she be flying?
Would it be flying?

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Would we be flying?

Would you be flying?

Would they be flying?

Fly in conditional perfect

Утверждение

I would have flown

You would have flown

He would have flown
She would have flown
It would have flown

We would have flown

You would have flown

They would have flown

Отрицание

I would not have flown

You would not have flown

He would not have flown
She would not have flown
It would not have flown

We would not have flown

You would not have flown

They would not have flown

Вопрос

Would I have flown?

Would you have flown?

Would he have flown?
Would she have flown?
Would it have flown?

Would we have flown?

Would you have flown?

Would they have flown?

Fly in conditional perfect progressive

Утверждение

I would have been flying

You would have been flying

He would have been flying
She would have been flying
It would have been flying

We would have been flying

You would have been flying

They would have been flying

Отрицание

I would not have been flying

You would not have been flying

He would not have been flying
She would not have been flying
It would not have been flying

We would not have been flying

You would not have been flying

They would not have been flying

Вопрос

Would I have been flying?

Would you have been flying?

Would he have been flying?
Would she have been flying?
Would it have been flying?

Источник

Окончание ing

Окончание —ing у глаголов служит для образования некоторых форм причастия (Participle), которое также используется в качестве глагольной формы времен Continuous, и формы Gerund. -Ing также может выступать в роли суффикса для образования существительных и прилагательных. После добавления окончания —ing изменяется значение слова с ответа на вопрос «Что делать?» на «Что? Какой? Как?».

  • be ing – будучи
  • cry ing – плач, плачущий, плача
  • hav ing – имеющий, имея
  • swimm ing – плавание, плавающий, плава
  • to be – быть
  • to cry – плакать
  • to have – иметь
  • to swim – плавать

При добавлении окончания —ing к глаголам есть несколько частных случаев, которые перечислены ниже. Если глагол не попадает ни под одно из этих правил, то достаточно просто добавить —ing к первой форме глагола без каких-либо преобразований.

  • try ing – старания, старающийся, стараясь
  • break ing – ломая, ломающий, ломание
  • finish ing – заканчивая, заканчивающий
  • crouch ing – притаишвись, ползущий, присевший
  • to try – попробовать, пытаться
  • to break – ломать
  • to finish – заканчивать
  • to crouch – присесть, пригнуться

Непроизносимая «е»

Если глагол заканчивается на непроизносимую букву «е», то она выпадает. Если звук [ e ] произносится, то буква «е» остается.

  • «е» не произносится
  • to mak e → making
  • to tak e → taking
  • to forgiv e → forgiving
  • to writ e → writing
  • «е» произносится
  • to agree → agreeing
  • to free → freeing
  • to pee → peeing
  • to fee → feeing

Окончание -iе меняется на -у

Если глагол заканчивается на сочетание букв «ie», то при прибавлении —ing суффикс —ie меняется на букву «y».

  • to d ie → d y ing
  • to l ie → l y ing
  • to t ie → t y ing

Буква «y» сохраняется

Если глагол заканчивается на букву «y», то она не изменяется при добавлении окончания —ing, в отличие от добавления окончания -еd.

  • to carr y → carr y ing
  • to stud y → stud y ing
  • to pla y → pla y ing
  • to tr y → tr y ing
  • to sa y → sa y ing
  • to worr y → worr y ing

Удвоение согласных

Удвоение происходит при добавлении —ing, если глагол заканчивается на одну согласную букву, перед которой есть ударный гласный звук.

  • to g e t → ge tt ing
  • to h i t → hi tt ing
  • to r u n → ru nn ing
  • to occ u r → occu rr ing
  • to ref e r → refe rr ing
  • to beg i n → begi nn ing
  • to st o p → sto pp ing
  • to forg e t → forge tt ing

При добавлении —ing удвоение согласных не происходит, если ударение стоит не на предстоящем гласном звуке, или предстоящий – это долгий гласный звук (диграф).

Конечная буква «x» не удваивается, потому что эта буква передает сразу два звука [ks] или [gz]. Также не удваивается конечная буква «w».

  • mix → mi x ing
  • relax → rela x ing
  • tax → ta x ing
  • snow → sno w ing
  • blow → blo w ing
  • show → sho w ing

Удвоение -l в британском английском

По британским правилам грамматики при добавлении окончания —ing к глаголам конечная буква «l» удваивается всегда, даже если ударение стоит не на последнем слоге.

Однако, по американским правилам удвоения согласной буквы «l» нет, если ударение не стоит на предстоящем гласном звуке или если предстоящий звук – это долгий гласный звук.

  • Британский английский
  • to signal → signa ll ing
  • to travel → trave ll ing
  • to cancel → cance ll ing
  • Американский английский
  • to signal → signa l ing
  • to travel → trave l ing
  • to cancel → cance l ing

Если глагол заканчивается на одну согласную букву «l», перед которой есть краткий ударный гласный звук, удвоение происходит в любом случае.

  • Британский английский
  • compel → compe ll ing
  • rebel → rebe ll ing
  • Американский английский
  • compel → compe ll ing
  • rebel → rebe ll ing

Окончание -ic

Если глагол заканчивается на сочетание букв «ic», то при прибавлении —ing, суффикс —ic меняется на —ick.

  • traff ic → traff ick ing
  • mim ic → mim ick ing
  • pan ic → pan ick ing

Использование окончания -ing

Окончание —ing используется при образовании существительных (а также прилагательных) от глаголов.

  • to meet → meet ing
  • to be → be ing
  • встречаться → встреча, заседание
  • быть → существо

Окончание —ing используется при образовании формы Present Participle, которая используется во временах Continuous, Perfect Continuous, формах Continuous Infinitive и Perfect Continuous Infinitive, которые могут использоваться в качестве определения или обстоятельства.

  • I’m work ing at the moment, I can’t help you. – Я сейчас работаю, я не могу тебе помочь.
  • We have been liv ing in this town since 1980. – Мы живем в этом городке с 1980 года.
  • I would be nice to be travel ing overseas right now. – Было бы хорошо путешествовать сейчас за границу.
  • You seem to have been cry ing all night long. What has happened? – Ты выглядишь так, как будто проплакала всю ночь. Что случилось?
  • This smil ing girl is so cute! – Эта улыбающаяся девочка такая милая!
  • Walk ing in the park I met my old friend. – Гуляя по парку, я встретила своего старого друга.

Окончание —ing используется при образовании герундия (The Gerund).

  • Your com ing here really pleases me. – Твой визит меня действительно радует.
  • Drinking hot tea is someth ing you need when you’re ill. – Пить горячий чай – это то, что тебе нужно, когда ты болеешь.

Источник